Bioplastics - Basics, Applications, Markets

Bioplastics - Basics. Applications. Markets.
Biokunststoffe - Grundlagen. Anwendungen. Märkte.

Dr.-Ing. Michael Thielen

First edition, 2012 / 110 pages full color / paperback

ISBN 978-3-9814981-1-0: Bioplastics (english version)
ISBN 978-3-9814981-2-7: Biokunststoffe (deutschsprachige Ausgabe, 2. Auflage 2014)

Polymedia Publisher GmbH

Price

Pre-order now for € 18.65 or US-$ 25.00
(+ MwSt/VAT where applicable, plus shipping and handling, 5 EUR or 7 US-$,
in Deutschland kostenfreier Versand)

order at:
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or (the easiest way) via our fax-form


New ‘basics‘ book on bioplastics

This new book, created and published by Polymedia Publisher, maker of bioplastics MAGAZINE will be available from early April 2012 in English and German language. 

The book is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students, those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also examined.

An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to sources of additional information on the Internet.

The author Michael Thielen is editor and publisher bioplastics MAGAZINE. He is a qualified machinery design engineer with a degree in plastics technology from the RWTH University in Aachen. He has written several books on the subject of blow-moulding technology and disseminated his knowledge of plastics in numerous presentations, seminars, guest lectures and teaching assignments.


Table of contents

1 Bioplastic - what is it exactly? 6
1.1 Fundamentals 6
1.2 Bioplastics 7
1.2.1 Biobased plastics 8
1.2.2 Biodegradable plastics 8
1.3 Biobased plastics - why? 10
2 Renewable resources 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Natural Polymers 12
2.2.1 Polysaccharides (carbohydrates) 12
2.2.2 Proteins 13
2.2.3 Lignin 13
2.2.4 Natural rubber 13
2.2.5 Other 13
2.3 Other biogenic materials 14
2.3.1 Plant oils 14
2.3.2 Monomers 14
3 Biobased plastics 16
3.1 Introduction 16
3.2 Biobased / partially biobased 19
3.3 Modified natural polymers 21
3.3.1 Thermoplastic starch 21
3.3.2 Cellulose-based plastics 22
3.3.3 Natural rubber and thermoplastic elastomers 24
3.3.4 Lignin-based plastics 26
3.3.5 Protein-based plastics 26
3.3.6 PHA 27
3.4 Polymers synthesised from biobased monomers 30
3.4.1 Biobased polyesters 30
3.4.2 Biobased polyamides 36
3.4.3 Biobased polyurethane 38
3.4.4 Biobased polyacrylates 39
3.4.5 Biobased polyolefins 39
3.4.6 Biobased thermoset resins 41
3.4.7 Other biobased plastics 42
3.4.8 Bioplastics from waste 43
4 Methods of processing plastics 46
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Compounding 46
4.3 Further processing 47
4.3.1 Extrusion 47
4.3.2 Blown film extrusion 48
4.3.3 Injection moulding 49
4.3.4 Blow moulding 50
4.3.5 Thermoforming 52
4.3.6 Foams 52
4.3.7 Casting 54
4.3.8 Other plastic processing methods 54
4.3.9 Joining plastic together 55
5 Applications 56
5.1 Packaging 56
5.2 Catering 58
5.3 Horticulture and agriculture 59
5.4 Medicine and personal care 61
5.5 Consumer electronics 62
5.6 Automobile manufacture 63
5.7 Textiles 65
5.8 Other 66
6 End of Life / Disposal / Closed loops 68
6.1 Recycling 68
6.1.1 Material recycling 68
6.1.2 Chemical recycling 69
6.2 Composting 69
6.3 Energy recovery or thermal recycling 70
6.4 Land fill 71
6.5 Closed loops 72
7 The market 74
8 Potential and perspectives 78
8.1 Further developments 78
8.2 Do we in fact have enough agricultural land? 79
9 Legal and regulatory background 82
9.1 Standards and certification regarding “compostability” 82
9.2 The Packaging Ordinance 83
9.3 Standards and certification regarding “Biobased” 83
10 Suggested further reading 86
11 Sources of information on the Internet 88
12 List of references 90
13 Index 96

Preface

Petroleum is not an inexhaustible resource, and it is becoming ever more expensive. Burning of petroleum products (including plastics) has an impact on climate change. Bioplastics can offer an alternative in this regard.

Bioplastics are on the one hand biobased plastics (produced from renewable resources) and on the other hand may well be biodegradable plastics. Many bioplastics meet both of these criteria.

This book is based on numerous articles in the bioplastics MAGAZINE trade publication as well as on various talks, presentations and university lectures that have been given by myself in recent years.

It is intended to offer a rapid and uncomplicated introduction into the subject of bioplastics, and is aimed at all interested readers, in particular those who have not yet had the opportunity to dig deeply into the subject, such as students, those just joining this industry, and lay readers. It gives an introduction to plastics and bioplastics, explains which renewable resources can be used to produce bioplastics, what types of bioplastic exist, and which ones are already on the market. Further aspects, such as market development, the agricultural land required, and waste disposal, are also examined.

An extensive index allows the reader to find specific aspects quickly, and is complemented by a comprehensive literature list and a guide to sources of additional information on the Internet.

The author and the publishers express their thanks to all of the companies who have made it possible, through their advertisements, to publish this book at the lowest possible retail selling price. It should be made clear, however, that these companies have had no influence on the contents of the book. The author also expresses his thanks to the FNR (Agency for Renewable Resources) within then German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection for their support and excellent cooperation.


Mönchengladbach, Germany, February 2012

Michael Thielen


Bioplastics - Basics, Applications, Markets
First edition

ISBN 978-3-9814981-1-0: Bioplastics
ISBN 978-3-9814981-0-3: Biokunststoffe

Polymedia Publisher GmbH
Mönchengladbach, Germany
www.polymedia-publisher.com

Design, layout and typesetting:
Mark Speckenbach, Julia Hunold

 
 
Bioplastics - Basics, Applications, Marketszoom
Bioplastics - Basics, Applications, Markets
Page 16: Biobased plasticszoom
Page 16: Biobased plastics
Page 49 - Methods of processing plastics: Injection mouldingzoom
Page 49 - Methods of processing plastics: Injection moulding
Page 30: Polymers synthesised from biobased monomers: Biobased polyesters zoom
Page 30: Polymers synthesised from biobased monomers: Biobased polyesters
Page 34 - Biobased plastics: Biobased polyesters zoom
Page 34 - Biobased plastics: Biobased polyesters
Page 60 - Applications: Medicine and personal carezoom
Page 60 - Applications: Medicine and personal care
Page 70 - End of Life / Disposal / Closed loops: Energy recovery or thermal recyclingzoom
Page 70 - End of Life / Disposal / Closed loops: Energy recovery or thermal recycling
Page 82 - The market: Legal and regulatory backgroundzoom
Page 82 - The market: Legal and regulatory background
Dr. Ing. Michael Thielen
Dr. Ing. Michael Thielen
 
 

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